Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) or penetrant testing (PT), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous  materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials and ferrous materials.

Magnetic particle inspection
(MPI) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) process for detecting surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferrous materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and some of their alloys. The process puts a magnetic field into the part. The magnetic force may be applied using either alternating current (AC) or some form of direct current (DC) (rectified AC).

Radiographic Testing
(RT), is a nondestructive testing  method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short wavelength electromagnetic radiation  to penetrate various materials.Either an X-ray machine or a radioactive source  can be used as a source of photons

Eddy-current testing
uses electromagnetic induction to detect flaws in conductive materials.  Eddy-current testing can detect very small cracks in or near the surface of the material, the surfaces need minimal preparation, and physically complex geometries can be investigated. It is also useful for making electrical conductivity and coating thickness measurements.

In ultrasonic testing (UT), very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz and occasionally up to 50 MHz are launched into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. The technique is also commonly used to determine the thickness of the test object, for example, to monitor corrosion.  Ultrasonic testing is often performed on steel and other metals and alloys

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